Mandible Anatomy

The mandible is an important part of the body. Out of all bones in the body, it is ranked as the largest. It is also the strongest bone in the entire human anatomy. It constitutes the lower side of the jaw. It, therefore, acts as a foundation of the teeth at the lower side of the mouth. During feeding, the jaws that move usually form the mandible anatomy. It is vital during the chewing process. The mandible has a shape that resembles the horseshoe. The sides are also symmetrical to fit perfectly into the mouth. The mandible structure is divided into different sections. They include the body and the ramus which include a number of processes. Read on to know more about the mandible.


  Mandible Body

The mandible anatomy has a body which forms a larger part. It is the anterior part of the mandible. The body’s features are curved in shape. With a closer look, the shape resembles that of the horseshoe. The body has two key borders which are inferior and superior. The alveolar border makes up the superior part. It has a total of sixteen sockets holding the bottom teeth. The base forms the inferior border which attaches the digastric muscles to the mandible.

Mandibular Symphysis

is responsible for marking the body’s midline. The tiny ridge is a representation of the dual halves during growth. Symphysis plays a major role in forming the chin. This happens when mental protuberance sides are elevated to form the mental tubercle.

   Mandible Rami

The mandible anatomy has two rami which protrude upwards at a 90-degree angle. Each ramus has similar aspects which make up the bone structure. They include the neck, head, coronoid process, and condylar process. On that account, the rami are the second biggest part that forms the mandible.
The neck acts as the supporting element to the ramus head. It is also an attachment to the side pterygoid muscle. The neck, therefore, is an important part of the ramus. It mainly holds the head and vital muscle.

The head is at the posterior location. Its function is to join temporal bones to make the joint known as Temporomandibular. This joint links the jawbone to the human skull. It is also a crucial part of the ramus.   Coronoid process acts as a connective site to the temporalis also called temporalis muscle. It has triangular elevation which has diverse sizes and shapes. The coronoid process has edges that are flat in shape. The anterior side of the ramus has a convex design and proceeds continuously. The posterior side takes up a concave form which constitutes the boundary at the anterior side.

Condylar process is also called condyloid process. It has a thicker structure than the coronoid process. It consists of two parts namely the neck and condyle. The neck gets its strength from ridges that originate from the sides and the front of the condyle. The surface at the posterior is usually convex. The condyle, on the other hand, has a surface that is articular.

Mandibular notch separates coronoid and condylar processes. It is a deep depression that is semi-lunar. It is also crossed by a nerve and masseteric vessels which are facial arteries.

Foramina   Neurovascular structures have a pathway through the foramen. Therefore, it acts as a passage for the structures to travel. It is found at the inner part of the ramus. Alveolar nerve and alveolar artery pass through the foramen. They reach to mandibular canal and finally get an exit via mental foramen. This mental foramen is found at the outside surface of the mandible. It is right at the second lower premolar. Inferior alveolar nerves pass through it and eventually become mental nerves. Thus, the foramen is leeway to many nerves in the mandible anatomy.

     Muscles

The mandible anatomy serves as a muscle attachment area. This is because it is a site where muscles get attached. An example is a body whose external side surface helps to attach some muscles. They include buccinator, mentalis, and platysma. The internal middle surface aids in attaching muscles such as the following. They include digastric, mylohyoid, genioglossus, and geniohyoid.

The rami serve as muscle attachment for diverse muscles. They are lateral pterygoid, masseter, temporalis and medial pterygoid. The temporalis links with the coronoid while the master connects to ramus. As for lateral pterygoid, it attaches to mandible’s neck. Medial pterygoid links to the mandible’s ramus near the mandible angle.

    Articulations

The mandible joins with two temporal bones in its structure. Then, a temporomandibular joint is obtained from the articulation. Meckel’s Cartilage is responsible for mandible bone formation. The cartilages make up cartilaginous bar which is also arches of the mandibles. At the head, they are linked to the capsules of the ear. The two meet at the symphysis of the mandibles. The cartilage end has two distinct bones which are incus and malleus. They are found in the middle of the ear and after growth, they form a ligament called the sphenomandibular.

   Variations

The mandible anatomy is different among females and males. As for the males, their mandibles are sturdy, larger and squarer than females. This means that mental protuberance is evident than females. As for the females, the mandible structure appears smaller and weaker. Some structures can only be evident through a radiograph. This is mainly an alveolar nerve which cannot be seen normally.  Age also causes a variation in the mandibles. Infants have a mandible body that is long. This is to provide space to the growing teeth. The young people have mandibles that are big and pronounced. Adults have mandibular structures that have equal measurements. As they age, the bones get smaller due to the teeth loss. When they can no longer hold teeth, they reduce in size. The condyle neck gets bent in a backward direction. This makes it less effective to function.

Conclusion 

Therefore, the mandible anatomy consists of two major parts. They are the body and the rami which serve different functions. They also have different structures as part of their anatomy. There are two important processes which are coronoid and condylar that are crucial. The mandible is an area of attachment for a number of muscles. Numbers of nerves are also found in the mandible structure. The nerves such as mental nerve give the lower lips a feeling of sensation.    The anatomy is different with age and gender. The structure is formed when a couple of bones are connected. This produces strong mandible anatomy which holds teeth. With that said, the bones make up the sturdiest part of the body which is the mandible.